Flora and Fauna of Kyrgyzstan

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The flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan are rich in variety of species and can be divided by altitudinal zoning. The country is situated in moderate and subtropical latitudes, rich in high mountains and vast valleys. On the territory of the country there are deserts, semi-deserts, steppes, meadows, forests, bushes, swamps and mountain tundras. In the northern part of the country steppes, meadow-steppes, meadows, bushes and forests are more common. In the south, semi-deserts and deserts are more common due to the dry climate. 

In Kyrgyzstan there are more than 500 species of vertebrates, about 50 species of fish, 4 species of amphibians, 28 reptiles, about 350 birds, 86 mammals, about 30 thousand species of protozoa and invertebrates and more than 1600 species of useful wild-growing flora, of which more than 200 are medicinal plants. 

mountainsAmong the wild plants we can mention: saltwort, barberry, rhubarb, Fergana spurge, various thyme species. Among the medicinal species are: vasilistnik, Karakol akonit, big elecampane, Turkestan motherwort, St. John’s wort, coltsfoot, oreganum, sea buckthorn, etc. In the forests grow tulips and edelweiss, as well as Shenka fir, Siberian fir and juniper. The most common trees are spruce, juniper (archa), everywhere grow spruce, maple, poplar, willow, birch forests and Tien Shan mountain ash trees. In summer, the valley offers a beautiful view of the field covered with poppies. In forests, steppes and meadows you can find many different species of mushrooms. The south of the country is famous for the largest natural nut forest in the world. In the whole territory of the republic there are widely spread thickets of dropwort, hips, sea buckthorn, cherry plum, honeysuckle, barberry, almonds, pistachio, etc. In the south of the country there are also many species of mushrooms.

Saltwort, camel prickle, thistle, wormwood, etc. are the dominate vegetation cover of the deserts. In the valleys among the abundance of cereals ephemers and ephemeroids (poppies, tulips, snowdrops, crocuses) take considerable part in the herbage. In the steppe zone dominate tipchak, fescue, stipa, chiy, wormwood, ephemera, ziziphora, thyme, sage, upland crane, yarrow, dragonhead, meadowrue, wheatgrass, desrt-candle, ferrule, beard grass. In floodplain-valley meadows sedge, reed, typha, islands of marsh vegetation prevail. Mountain tundras form lichens, mosses, cryophytic grains, sedges, polster plant and herbs.

The rarest mountain-dwelling species such as the Marco Polo sheep, deer, lynx and snow leopard are found in Kyrgyzstan. The Red Book of the Republic includes dozens of animal species: snow leopard, Central Asian otter, maral, Tienshan brown bear, mountain ram (argali), golden eagle.

Grey heron, wolf, bittern,  pheasant, corncrake, oriole, warbler, falconet, flycatcher, nightingale are typical of floodplain and lake thickets. Among mammals – common long-eared bat, forest dormouse, weasel, wild boar. At an altitude of 3400 and 3800 m grey marmots, silvery and narrow-skull field voles, brown bears, wild rams, hares and mountain goats live. Above the snow line, at an altitude of more than 4000 m, there are red-breasted gorgets, alpine mountain finches, mountain goose, blue rock pigeon, partridge, alpine jackdaw and large snowbirds. And at an altitude of 4,500 meters there are snow goats and leopards of prey.

Among birds of Kyrgyzstan there are: waders, mountain or Indian goose, gulls, terns, grebe, grey heron, kingfisher, black stork, demoiselle crane, coot, pochard, swans and even flamingos. The desert area is inhabited by Pallas’sandgrouse and grouse, as well as desert finches, variable wheatear, short-toed lark, rock sparrow, rock nuthatch. The steppe zone is inhabited by harrier, common-buzzard, steppe eagle, imperial eagle, carrion vulture. In spruce, juniper and nut forests dwell rock pigeon, partridge, cuckoo, grackle, hoopoe, magpie, northern raven, jackdaw, goldfinch, tits, blackbird, Eurasian  eagle-owl, common long-eared owl, black kite, sparrow-hawk.

The mountain lakes of Kyrgyzstan are inhabited by ich, stunned fish, osman, marinka, thick-lipped gray mullet, common brook trout, groundling, Sevan trout, pike-perch, bream, bloater, carp, crucian carp, omul and others. The rivers and other ponds of the republic are inhabited by carp, luce, barbel, dare, asp, silver carps, snakehead, grass carp, perch and others. 

Nomad Lodge invites you to explore the flora and fauna of Kyrgyzstan. At your choice, ornithological, eco, photo, botanical, combination tours along the country. You are waited by the unique nature, landscape and culture of the Kyrgyz people. Welcome to the mountainous country for adventure!